30. Fagiolo G, Reyes J, Schiavo S. World Trade Web: Topological properties, dynamics, and evolution. Phys Rev E. (2009) 79:036115. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.036115 China is the only G20 member to have a negative BTA impact index with regard to IT for export links with its partners. This finding would be consistent with the assumption that China has a different objective than most other countries in its trade agreement negotiations. The lack of continued growth of Chinese IT vis-à-vis its partners can be explained by two predominant facts: on the one hand, China had already had easy access to the more open markets of its partners prior to the implementation of the corresponding BTAs, as in the case of Von Hong Kong . On the other hand, since the 1990s, China has steadily increased both the number of its trading partners and its international trade. As a result of these developments, China`s BDU has not led to a disproportionate and ongoing increase in bilateral trade with its partners relative to China`s other trade activities. On the other hand, China, which is gradually gaining economic clout for its partners, may have explicitly included its motivation to negotiate TAAs with the strategic objective of increasing its economic and political influence among its trading partners. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of NTOs by measuring their impact on trade flows between the economic sectors of the various contracting states.
To this end, we consider all trade relations as an international trade network (ITN) in which sectors (nodes) are linked by their volume of trade. The theory of networks applied to commercial economics has gained strength in recent years, since it allows to integrate topological properties in the analysis [18, 19]. Studies on the formation and structure of economic dependencies , the resistance of the commercial system to a failure of an industry or production facility [21, 22] and the dissemination of knowledge and technology related to growth  are remarkable examples. Unlike gravity models often used for related analyses [3, 5, 6], we can thus take into account higher orders of reciprocal economic interdependencies. In this work, such reliance on the higher order reflects the fact that TATs could also influence the demand and supply of sectors indirectly linked to the export and import sector. The existence of these indirect effects was recently revealed by , which shows that countries more linked to trade agreements benefit from the fact that they export more than those that are more isolated. Taking into account all direct and indirect inflows and exits within and between two countries, we are putting in place a quantitative framework for measuring the interconnection of trade (IT) between two ITN countries. Taking into account all direct and indirect dependencies thus improves the SPC measure proposed recently by Wenz and Levermann , which is limited to the measurement of direct dependencies.