The United States (under former President George W. Bush) and Australia (first under former Prime Minister John Howard) did not ratify the Kyoto Treaty.  According to Stern (2006), their decision was based on the absence of quantitative emissions commitments for emerging economies (see also Section 2000). Australia, under former Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, ratified the treaty, which came into force in March 2008.  The answer depends on who you ask and how you measure emissions. Since the first climate talks in the 1990s, officials have been debating which countries – developed and developing countries – are most responsible for climate change and should therefore reduce their emissions. 1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development is held in Rio de Janeiro. It is the result of, among other things, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) The EU`s national contribution to the Paris Agreement is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990, as part of its broader climate and energy framework by 2030. All the main EU legislation to achieve this goal has been adopted by the end of 2018. Emission limits do not include emissions from international aviation and shipping.
 Although Belarus and Turkey are included in Schedule I of the agreement, they do not have emission targets since they were not parties to Schedule I at the time of the adoption of the protocol.  Kazakhstan has no objective, but has stated that it wishes to become a contracting party to Schedule I of the Convention.  These are all problems related to climate change. The majority of scientists agree that many of these effects are caused by human contribution to the greenhouse effect. Extreme weather events, droughts, heat waves and rising sea levels will have devastating effects on the world`s poorest countries and communities. The natural, technical and social sciences can provide information on decisions made regarding this objective, including the possible magnitude and rate of future climate change.  However, the IPCC also concluded that the decision on what constitutes “dangerous” interference will require value judgments that will vary from region to region of the world.  Factors that may influence this decision include the local effects of the effects of climate change, the ability of a given region to adapt to climate change (adaptive capacity) and a region`s ability to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions (mitigative capacity).  In response to these criticisms, Bush said, “I have reacted to reality, and the reality is that the nation has a real energy problem.” The Tyndall Centre called it “an exaggeration that is used to cover the major benefactors of this political reversal, the U.S.
oil and coal industry, which has a powerful lobby with the government and Republican conservatives.”  The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 was one of the annual non-meetings that followed the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio. In 1997, discussions took place on the Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen conference was seen as an opportunity to agree on a successor to Kyoto that would significantly reduce CO2 emissions.   It maintains the commitment of developed countries to continue to play a leading role in providing funding, but for the first time ,”other parties” are invited to provide voluntary financial support.